At present, the biggest technical problem of LED lighti […]
At present, the biggest technical problem of LED lighting fixtures is the problem of heat dissipation. Poor heat dissipation causes LED driving power and electrolytic capacitors to become the short board for the further development of LED lighting fixtures. The cause of premature decay of LED light sources.
At present, after the LED light source is powered on, about 30% of the electrical energy is converted into light energy, and the rest is converted into thermal energy. Therefore, it is the key technology for the structural design of LED lamps to export so much thermal energy as soon as possible. Thermal energy needs to be dissipated through thermal conduction, thermal convection and thermal radiation. Only by expelling the heat as soon as possible can the cavity temperature in the LED luminaire be effectively reduced, the power supply can be protected from working in a persistent high temperature environment, and the LED light source can be prevented from premature aging due to long-term high temperature work.
Let's take a look at the heat dissipation path of LED lighting fixtures with Xiaobian:
Because the LED light source itself does not have infrared and ultraviolet rays, the LED light source itself does not have the function of radiating heat, and the heat dissipation path of the LED lighting fixture can only derive heat through a heat sink closely combined with the LED lamp bead board. The radiator must have the functions of heat conduction, heat convection and heat radiation
In addition to any heat sink that can quickly transfer heat from the heat source to the surface of the heat sink, the main thing is to radiate the heat into the air by convection and radiation. Heat conduction only solves the heat transfer path, and heat convection is the main function of the heat sink. The heat dissipation performance is mainly determined by the ability of heat dissipation area, shape, and natural convection strength. Heat radiation is only an auxiliary role.
Common heat dissipation methods are die-cast aluminum radiators, extruded aluminum radiators, stamped aluminum radiators, plastic-clad aluminum radiators, and high-thermal-conductivity plastic radiators.
Die-cast aluminum radiator
The production cost is controllable, the heat dissipation wing cannot be made thin, and it is difficult to enlarge the heat dissipation area. The commonly used die casting materials for LED lamp radiators are ADC10 and ADC12.
Extruded aluminum radiator
The liquid aluminum is extruded through a fixed mold, and then the rod is machined to cut into a required shape of the radiator. The cost of post-processing is high. The cooling fins can be made very thin, and the heat dissipation area is maximized. When the cooling fins work, air convection diffuses heat automatically, and the cooling effect is better. Common materials are AL6061 and AL6063
Stamped aluminum radiator
The punching and die stamping and drawing of steel and aluminum alloy plates make it a cup-and-tube radiator. The inner and outer periphery of the stamped radiator is smooth, and the heat dissipation area is limited due to the lack of wings. Commonly used aluminum alloy materials are 5052, 6061, 6063. The quality of stamping parts is very small and the utilization rate of materials is high, which is a low cost solution.
The heat conduction of aluminum alloy radiator is ideal, which is more suitable for isolated switching constant current power supply. For the non-isolated switch constant current power supply, the AC and DC, high voltage and low voltage power supply isolation needs to be done through the structural design of the lamp, in order to pass CE or UL certification.
Plastic coated aluminum radiator
It is a heat sink with a thermally conductive plastic shell and an aluminum core. The thermally conductive plastic and the aluminum heat sink are formed on the injection molding machine at one time. The aluminum heat sink is used as a buried part and requires machining in advance. The heat of the LED lamp beads is quickly conducted to the thermally conductive plastic through the aluminum heat sink. The thermally conductive plastic uses its multiple wings to form air convection to dissipate heat, and uses its surface to radiate part of the heat.
The density of heat-conducting plastic is 40% smaller than that of die-cast aluminum and ceramics. The heat sink of the same shape can reduce the weight of plastic-clad aluminum by nearly one-third. Compared with the all-aluminum radiator, the processing cost is lower, the processing cycle is shorter, and the processing temperature is lower; The finished product is not fragile; the customer-supplied injection molding machine can carry out differentiated shape design and production of lamps. Plastic-clad aluminum heat sinks have good insulation properties and can easily pass safety regulations.
High thermal conductivity plastic heat sink
High thermal conductivity plastic radiator A kind of all plastic radiator, its thermal conductivity is tens of times higher than ordinary plastic, reaching 2-9w / mk, it has excellent heat conduction and heat radiation ability; it can be applied to a variety of new power lamps Insulation and heat dissipation material, can be widely used in various types of LED lamps from 1W to 200W
High thermal conductivity plastic withstand voltage level up to 6000V AC, suitable for non-isolated switch constant current power supply, HVLED high voltage linear constant current power supply. Make this kind of LED lighting fixture easy to pass the strict safety inspections such as CE, TUV, UL. HVLED uses high voltage (VF = 35-280VDC) and low current (IF = 20-60mA) working state, so the heating of HVLED lamp bead board is reduced. Highly thermally conductive plastic radiators can be used with traditional injection molding and extrusion machines.
Nano-scale metal ions are densely packed between PLA molecules inside a highly thermally conductive plastic heat sink, which can move quickly at high temperatures and increase heat radiation energy. Its vitality is better than metal heat sink. High thermal conductivity plastic heat sink, high temperature resistance, no break or deformation for five hours at 150 ℃ ,low cost. It is especially suitable for the application of fluorescent tubes and high-power industrial and mining lamps.
Highly thermally conductive plastic radiators can be designed with many precise cooling wings. The cooling wings can be made very thin and the heat dissipation area is maximized. When the cooling wings work, air convection diffuses heat automatically and the heat dissipation effect is better. The heat of the LED lamp beads passes through the highly thermally conductive plastic directly to the heat dissipation wing, and the heat is rapidly dissipated through air convection and surface radiation.
High thermal conductivity plastic heat sinks are lighter than aluminum. The density of aluminum is 2700kg / m3, while the density of plastic is 1420kg / m3, which is almost half that of aluminum. Therefore, the weight of a plastic radiator of the same shape is only 1/2 of that of aluminum. Moreover, the processing is simple, and the molding cycle can be shortened by 20-50%, which also reduces the power of cost.