Industrial lighting interpretation


First, the scope and its kind The factory is a place fo […]

First, the scope and its kind
The factory is a place for producing established products. It is generally composed of factory buildings, office and other ancillary buildings, various outdoor installations, stations, fields and roads.
The factory lighting design range includes indoor lighting, outdoor unit lighting, station, field lighting, underground lighting, road lighting, guard lighting, and obstacle lighting.
(1) Indoor lighting: interior lighting for the interior of the building, such as interior lighting and office.
(2) Outdoor unit lighting: Lighting set for various outdoor units. For example, the open-air operation field of the shipbuilding industry, the kettle, tank, reaction tower of petrochemical enterprises, the rotary kiln of the building materials enterprise, the belt corridor, the blast furnace body of the metallurgical enterprise, the ladder, the platform, the gas cabinet of the power station, and the total pressure reduction. Outdoor substation transformers, power distribution units, outdoor water pump station cooling racks (towers) and outdoor ventilation and dust removal equipment.
(3) Station lighting: lighting for stations, railway marshalling stations, parking lots, open storage yards, etc. (4) Underground lighting: lighting in basements, cable tunnels, integrated pipe corridors and tunnels.
(5) Road lighting: Lighting of roads and other roads in the factory area.
(6) Guard lighting: Lighting set along the perimeter of the plant and around the guard area of ​​the key location.
(7) Obstacle lighting: There are high-rise buildings and structures in the factory area, such as chimneys. According to the regional aviation conditions, the sign lighting required to be installed according to relevant regulations.
This chapter focuses on the interior lighting of the plant. For other lighting, see the relevant sections of the Lighting Design Manual.
Second, the characteristics of industrial plants
1. Characteristics of industrial plants
Industrial plants can be divided into single-storey industrial buildings and multi-storey industrial buildings according to their architectural structure. Most of the multi-storey industrial buildings are found in light industry, electronics, instrumentation, communications, medicine and other industries. The floor of such factories is generally not very high. The lighting design is similar to that of common scientific research buildings, and fluorescent lighting solutions are often used. The production plants in the fields of machining, metallurgy, textiles, etc. are generally single-story industrial buildings, and according to the needs of production, more are multi-span single-story industrial plants, that is, multi-span plants arranged in parallel next to each other. The needs can be the same or different.
On the basis of meeting the requirements of a certain building modulus, a single-storey factory determines its building width (span), length and height depending on the process needs. The span of the plant B: generally 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 36 m. The length of the factory building is as small as tens of meters and hundreds of meters. The height of the factory building is as low as 5 to 6 m, and as high as 30 to 40 m or even higher. The span and height of the plant are the main factors considered in the design of the plant lighting. In addition, according to the continuity of industrial production and the transportation of products between sections, most industrial plants are equipped with cranes, which can be lightly 3 to 5 tons, and large to hundreds of tons (currently the weight of a single crane in the machinery industry) Up to 800t). Therefore, factory lighting is usually achieved with luminaires mounted on the roof trusses.
2. Classification of industrial plants
According to the production characteristics of the products, industrial plants can be roughly divided into the following three types.
(1) General production plant: Factory building under normal environment.
(2) Explosion and fire hazard production plant: A factory that normally produces or stores explosives and fire hazards.
(3) Production plants in harsh environments: dusty, humid, high-temperature or production plants with steam, vibration, smoke, acid-alkaline corrosive gases or substances, and radioactive materials.
According to the above classification, factory lighting design should be carried out in strict accordance with the production conditions.
Third, the general requirements
Factory lighting should be designed in accordance with the following general principles.
1. Choice of lighting methods
(1) For the illuminance requirement is high, the working position density is not large, and the mixed lighting should be adopted in the place where the general lighting is unreasonable.
(2) The illumination requirement for the operation is not high, or when it is not suitable for installing local illumination due to production technical conditions, or when the mixed illumination is unreasonable, general illumination should be used separately.
(3) Partition general illumination can be used when a certain work area needs to be higher than the general illumination.
(4) Partial illumination should be added when the general illumination of the partition cannot meet the illumination requirements.
(5) Local lighting should not be installed only in the work area.
2. Illumination standard
The illumination value of the factory lighting design shall be selected according to the provisions of the national standard GB50034--2004 "Architectural Lighting Design Standards". The standard specifies the illuminance values ​​for general lighting for sixteen industrial buildings. The illuminance standards of more specific workplaces of various factories should also be in accordance with the relevant industry regulations.
3. Lighting quality
Lighting quality is a measure of the pros and cons of factory lighting design. It mainly includes the following:
(1) Select lamps with high efficiency and suitable light distribution curve. According to the hanging height of the luminaire on the plant frame, according to the room-shaped index ruler, the lamps with different light distributions are selected.
When RI = 0.5 ~ 0.8, narrow light distribution lamps should be used;
When RI = 0.8 ~ 1.65, it is advisable to use a medium light distribution lamp;
When RI=1.65~5, wide light distribution lamps should be used.
(2) Select an illumination source with appropriate color temperature and color rendering index to meet production requirements.
(3) To achieve the specified illuminance uniformity: the uniformity of general illumination illumination in the work area should not be less than 0.7, and the uniformity of illumination around the work area should not be less than 0.5.
(4) To meet the quality requirements of direct glare limitation of illumination: the uniform glare value (UGR) is in accordance with the provisions of GB50034-2004. That is, the general allowable value is 22 and the fine processing value is 19.
(5) Take measures to reduce the impact of voltage fluctuations, voltage flicker on lighting and prevent stroboscopic effects.
(6) The lighting device shall be operated under the allowable working voltage. In the place where the metal halide lamp and the high pressure sodium lamp are used, a compensation capacitor shall be used to increase the power factor.
4. Industrial lighting source selection
The light source should be selected according to the characteristics and requirements of the production process. The illumination source should be an induction lamp (see the entry for the induction of the electrodeless lamp), a three-color thin tube straight tube fluorescent lamp, a metal halide lamp or a high pressure sodium lamp. When the height of the light source is 4m or less, the electrodeless lamp and the thin tube fluorescent lamp should be used; for the high-rise building (6m or more), the electrodeless lamp and the metal halide lamp can be used, and the high-pressure sodium lamp without the color requirement can be used.
1. The place where the lamps should be frequently switched and activated instantaneously;
2. There are driving operations, where it is necessary to avoid glare;
3. Use a long lamp, use a large amount of electricity, and need energy-saving, energy-saving, and money-saving places;
4. Locations that require strict color identification (eg, spectral analysis rooms, chemical laboratories, etc.).
Incandescent lamp:
(1) Locations that are strict in preventing electromagnetic interference.
(2) Places where switching lights are frequent.
(3) Locations where illumination requirements are not high and lighting time is short.
(4) Local lighting and places where lighting is temporarily used.
High-color three-color fluorescent lamps should be used in places where color recognition is required (such as spectrum analysis rooms, chemical laboratories, etc.).
High-power rocket launcher energy-saving lamps:
1) The place where the lamps should be frequently switched and started instantaneously;
2) The height of the workshop is below 10 meters, preferably 4-8 meters;
3) A place where electricity consumption is large and energy saving, power saving, and money saving are required;
4) The lamp has a long service life, generally 3-5 years;
5) Need more realistic places (such as precision machinery, spectral analysis room, chemical laboratory, etc.).
Ceramic metal halide lamp:
1) The height of the workshop is above 10 meters;
2) Locations where the lighting requirements are relatively high;
3) A place where electricity consumption is large and energy saving, power saving, and money saving are required;
4) Need more realistic places (such as precision machinery, spectral analysis room, chemical laboratory, etc.).
5. Lamp selection
Factory lighting fixtures should be selected according to environmental conditions, meeting work and production conditions, and pay attention to the beautiful appearance, easy installation and coordination with the building to achieve technical and economical rationality.
6. Illumination calculation
Lighting design of the factory often uses the coefficient method for illuminance calculation. For some special locations or special equipment on a horizontal, vertical or inclined surface, when calculating the illuminance value, the point-by-point method can be used for calculation.
7. The way the factory lighting circuit is laid
The lighting branch of the factory building is generally covered by insulated wires (or ceramic columns) along the (or across) roof trusses. When the roof structure of the large-span factory adopts the grid type, in addition to the above methods, insulated wires or cables can be used to lay along the grid. Explosion and fire hazard plant lighting lines are generally copper core insulated wire through the water gas pipe. It can be laid in hard plastic pipes where it is affected by chemical (acid, alkali, salt spray) corrosive substances. According to the specific situation, in some places, wire trunking or special lighting busbar hoisting can also be used.

Industrial lighting interpretation